What Do You Mean By Right To Education
The right to education The right to education is a fundamental human right.61 million children do not have access to basic education and 758 million adults in the world are illiterate because they have never got any education, according to the 2016 Global Education Monitoring Report.

  • The right to education is a fundamental human right.
  • Every individual, irrespective of race, gender, nationality, ethnic or social origin, religion or political preference, age or disability, is entitled to a free elementary education.
  • This right has been universally recognised since the and has since been enshrined in various international conventions, national constitutions and development plans.

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights does not only state the right to access education, but also of the quality of education: «. Education shall be directed to the full development of the human personality and to the strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms.

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What is the right education?

Departmen of School Education & Literacy The Constitution (Eighty-sixth Amendment) Act, 2002 inserted Article 21-A in the Constitution of India to provide free and compulsory education of all children in the age group of six to fourteen years as a Fundamental Right in such a manner as the State may, by law, determine.

The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education (RTE) Act, 2009, which represents the consequential legislation envisaged under Article 21-A, means that every child has a right to full time elementary education of satisfactory and equitable quality in a formal school which satisfies certain essential norms and standards.

Article 21-A and the RTE Act came into effect on 1 April 2010. The title of the RTE Act incorporates the words ‘free and compulsory’. ‘Free education’ means that no child, other than a child who has been admitted by his or her parents to a school which is not supported by the appropriate Government, shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education.

  • Compulsory education’ casts an obligation on the appropriate Government and local authorities to provide and ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children in the 6-14 age group.
  • With this, India has moved forward to a rights based framework that casts a legal obligation on the Central and State Governments to implement this fundamental child right as enshrined in the Article 21A of the Constitution, in accordance with the provisions of the RTE Act.

The RTE Act provides for the:

Right of children to free and compulsory education till completion of elementary education in a neighbourhood school. It clarifies that ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate government to provide free elementary education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of elementary education to every child in the six to fourteen age group. ‘Free’ means that no child shall be liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. It makes provisions for a non-admitted child to be admitted to an age appropriate class. It specifies the duties and responsibilities of appropriate Governments, local authority and parents in providing free and compulsory education, and sharing of financial and other responsibilities between the Central and State Governments. It lays down the norms and standards relating inter alia to Pupil Teacher Ratios (PTRs), buildings and infrastructure, school-working days, teacher-working hours. It provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified pupil teacher ratio is maintained for each school, rather than just as an average for the State or District or Block, thus ensuring that there is no urban-rural imbalance in teacher postings. It also provides for prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational work, other than decennial census, elections to local authority, state legislatures and parliament, and disaster relief. It provides for appointment of appropriately trained teachers, i.e. teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications. It prohibits (a) physical punishment and mental harassment; (b) screening procedures for admission of children; (c) capitation fee; (d) private tuition by teachers and (e) running of schools without recognition, It provides for development of curriculum in consonance with the values enshrined in the Constitution, and which would ensure the all-round development of the child, building on the child’s knowledge, potentiality and talent and making the child free of fear, trauma and anxiety through a system of child friendly and child centered learning.

: Departmen of School Education & Literacy
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What is right to education in India?

Right To Education The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), is an Act of the Parliament of India enacted on 4 August 2009, which describes the modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21a of the Indian Constitution.

  1. India became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the Act came into force on 1 April 2010.
  2. The Act makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 and 14 and specifies minimum norms in elementary schools.
  3. It requires all private schools to reserve 25% of seats to children (to be reimbursed by the state as part of the public-private partnership plan).

Kids are admitted in to private schools based on economic status or caste based reservations. It also prohibits all unrecognised schools from practice, and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent for admission.

The Act also provides that no child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until the completion of elementary education. There is also a provision for special training of school drop-outs to bring them up to par with students of the same age. The RTE Act requires surveys that will monitor all neighbourhoods, identify children requiring education, and set up facilities for providing it.

The World Bank education specialist for India, Sam Carlson, has observed: “The RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuring enrolment, attendance and completion on the Government. It is the parents’ responsibility to send the children to schools in the US and other countries.” The Right to Education of persons with disabilities until 18 years of age is laid down under a separate legislation – the Persons with Disabilities Act.

A number of other provisions regarding improvement of school infrastructure, teacher-student ratio and faculty are made in the Act. Education in the Indian constitution is a concurrent issue and both centre and states can legislate on the issue. The Act lays down specific responsibilities for the centre, state and local bodies for its implementation.

The states have been clamouring that they lack financial capacity to deliver education of appropriate standard in all the schools needed for universal education. Thus it was clear that the central government (which collects most of the revenue) will be required to subsidise the states.

A committee set up to study the funds requirement and funding initially estimated that INR 1710 billion or 1.71 trillion (US$38.2 billion) across five years was required to implement the Act, and in April 2010 the central government agreed to sharing the funding for implementing the law in the ratio of 65 to 35 between the centre and the states, and a ratio of 90 to 10 for the north-eastern states.

However, in mid 2010, this figure was upgraded to INR 2310 billion, and the center agreed to raise its share to 68%. There is some confusion on this, with other media reports stating that the centre’s share of the implementation expenses would now be 70%.

At that rate, most states may not need to increase their education budgets substantially. A critical development in 2011 has been the decision taken in principle to extend the right to education till Class X (age 16) and into the preschool age range. The CABE committee is in the process of looking into the implications of making these changes.

The Ministry of HRD set up a high-level, 14-member National Advisory Council (NAC) for implementation of the Act. The members included Kiran Karnik, former president of NASSCOM; Krishna Kumar, former director of the NCERT; Mrinal Miri, former vice-chancellor of North-East Hill University; Yogendra Yadav – social scientist.

  • India Sajit Krishnan Kutty, Secretary of The Educators Assisting Children’s Hopes (TEACH) India; Annie Namala, an activist and head of Centre for Social Equity and Inclusion; and Aboobacker Ahmad, vice-president of Muslim Education Society, Kerala.
  • A report on the status of implementation of the Act was released by the Ministry of Human Resource Development on the one year anniversary of the Act.

The report admits that 8.1 million children in the age group six-14 remain out of school and there’s a shortage of 508,000 teachers country-wide. A shadow report by the RTE Forum representing the leading education networks in the country, however, challenging the findings pointing out that several key legal commitments are falling behind the schedule.

The Supreme Court of India has also intervened to demand implementation of the Act in the Northeast. It has also provided the legal basis for ensuring pay parity between teachers in government and government aided schools. Haryana Government has assigned the duties and responsibilities to Block Elementary Education Officers–cum–Block Resource Coordinators (BEEOs-cum-BRCs) for effective implementation and continuous monitoring of implementation of Right to Education Act in the State.

It has been pointed out that the RTE act is not new. Universal adult franchise in the act was opposed since most of the population was illiterate. Article 45 in the Constitution of India was set up as an act: The State shall endeavour to provide, within a period of ten years from the commencement of this Constitution, for free and compulsory education for all children until they complete the age of fourteen years.

As that deadline was about to be passed many decades ago, the education minister at the time, MC Chagla, memorably said: “Our Constitution fathers did not intend that we just set up hovels, put students there, give untrained teachers, give them bad textbooks, no playgrounds, and say, we have complied with Article 45 and primary education is expanding.

They meant that real education should be given to our children between the ages of 6 and 14″ – (MC Chagla, 1964). In the 1990s, the World Bank funded a number of measures to set up schools within easy reach of rural ommunities. This effort was consolidated in the Sarva Shiksha Abhiyan model in the 1990s.
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What do we mean by education?

Education | Definition, Development, History, Types, & Facts Education refers to the discipline that is concerned with methods of and in schools or school-like environments, as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of, Beginning approximately at the end of the 7th or during the 6th century, became the first city-state in ancient Greece to renounce education that was oriented toward the future duties of soldiers.

  1. The evolution of Athenian education reflected that of the city itself, which was moving toward increasing democratization.
  2. Research has found that education is the strongest determinant of individuals’ occupational status and chances of success in adult life.
  3. However, the correlation between family socioeconomic status and school success or failure appears to have increased worldwide.

Long-term trends suggest that as societies industrialize and modernize, becomes increasingly important in determining educational outcomes and occupational attainment. Alternative forms of education have developed since the late 20th century, such as,, and many parallel or supplementary systems of education often designated as “nonformal” and “popular.” Religious institutions also instruct the young and old alike in sacred knowledge as well as in the values and skills required for participation in local, national, and transnational societies.

School vouchers have been a hotly debated topic in the United States. Some parents of voucher recipients reported high levels of satisfaction, and studies have found increased voucher student graduation rates. Some studies have found, however, that students using vouchers to attend private schools instead of public ones did not show significantly higher levels of academic achievement.

education, that is concerned with methods of and in schools or school-like as opposed to various nonformal and informal means of (e.g., rural development projects and education through parent-child relationships). Education can be thought of as the transmission of the values and accumulated knowledge of a society.

In this sense, it is equivalent to what social scientists term or enculturation. Children—whether conceived among tribespeople, the Florentines, or the middle classes of Manhattan—are born without, Education is designed to guide them in learning a, molding their behaviour in the ways of, and directing them toward their eventual role in society.

In the most primitive, there is often little formal learning—little of what one would ordinarily call school or classes or, Instead, the entire and all activities are frequently viewed as school and classes, and many or all adults act as teachers. As societies grow more complex, however, the quantity of knowledge to be passed on from one generation to the next becomes more than any one person can know, and, hence, there must evolve more selective and efficient means of cultural transmission.

The outcome is formal education—the school and the specialist called the teacher. As society becomes ever more complex and schools become ever more institutionalized, educational experience becomes less directly related to daily life, less a matter of showing and learning in the of the workaday world, and more abstracted from practice, more a matter of distilling, telling, and learning things out of context.

This concentration of learning in a formal atmosphere allows children to learn far more of their culture than they are able to do by merely observing and imitating. As society gradually attaches more and more importance to education, it also tries to formulate the overall objectives, content, organization, and strategies of education.

  • Literature becomes laden with advice on the rearing of the younger generation.
  • In short, there develop philosophies and theories of education.
  • This article discusses the history of education, tracing the evolution of the formal teaching of knowledge and skills from prehistoric and ancient times to the present, and considering the various philosophies that have inspired the resulting systems.

Other aspects of education are treated in a number of articles. For a of education as a discipline, including educational organization, teaching methods, and the functions and training of teachers, see ; ; and, For a description of education in various specialized fields, see ; ; ;,

  1. For an analysis of educational philosophy, see,
  2. For an examination of some of the more important aids in education and the dissemination of knowledge, see ; ; ; ; ;,
  3. Some restrictions on educational freedom are discussed in,
  4. For an analysis of pupil attributes, see ; ;,
  5. The term education can be applied to primitive cultures only in the sense of, which is the process of cultural transmission.

A primitive person, whose culture is the totality of his universe, has a relatively fixed sense of cultural and timelessness. The model of life is relatively static and absolute, and it is transmitted from one generation to another with little deviation.

  • As for prehistoric education, it can only be inferred from educational practices in surviving primitive cultures.
  • The purpose of primitive education is thus to guide children to becoming good members of their or band.
  • There is a marked emphasis upon training for, because primitive people are highly concerned with the growth of individuals as tribal members and the thorough comprehension of their way of life during passage from prepuberty to postpuberty.

Get a Britannica Premium subscription and gain access to exclusive content. Because of the variety in the countless thousands of primitive cultures, it is difficult to describe any standard and uniform characteristics of prepuberty education. Nevertheless, certain things are practiced commonly within cultures.

  1. Children actually participate in the social processes of adult activities, and their participatory learning is based upon what the American anthropologist called, identification, and,
  2. Primitive children, before reaching puberty, learn by doing and observing basic technical practices.
  3. Their teachers are not strangers but rather their immediate,

In contrast to the spontaneous and rather unregulated imitations in prepuberty education, postpuberty education in some cultures is strictly standardized and regulated. The teaching personnel may consist of fully initiated men, often unknown to the initiate though they are his relatives in other clans.

  1. The may begin with the initiate being abruptly separated from his familial group and sent to a secluded camp where he joins other initiates.
  2. The purpose of this separation is to deflect the initiate’s deep attachment away from his and to establish his emotional and social anchorage in the wider web of his culture.

The initiation “curriculum” does not usually include practical subjects. Instead, it consists of a whole set of cultural values, tribal religion,, philosophy, history, rituals, and other knowledge. Primitive people in some cultures regard the body of knowledge the initiation curriculum as most essential to their tribal membership.
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What is the meaning of education on human rights?

Defining human rights education – Since 1948 a huge quantity and variety of work has been – and is being – done in the interests of human rights education. That there are many ways of doing HRE is as it should be because individuals view the world differently, educators work in different situations and different organisations and public bodies have differing concerns; thus, while the principles are the same, the practice may vary.

  1. In order to get a picture of the variety of teaching and activities that are being delivered, it is instructive to look at the roles and interests of the various “individuals and organs of society” in order to see how these inform the focus and scope of their interest in HRE.
  2. In 1993 the World Conference on Human Rights declared human rights education as “essential for the promotion and achievement of stable and harmonious relations among communities and for fostering mutual understanding, tolerance and peace”.

In 1994 the General Assembly of the United Nations declared the UN Decade of Human Rights Education (1995-2004) and urged all UN member states to promote “training dissemination and information aimed at the building of a universal culture of human rights”.

  • As a result, governments have been putting more efforts into promoting HRE, mainly through state education programmes.
  • Because governments have concern for international relations, maintaining law and order and the general functioning of society, they tend to see HRE as a means to promote peace, democracy and social order.

The purpose of the Council of Europe is to create a common democratic and legal area throughout the whole of the European continent, ensuring respect for its fundamental values: human rights, democracy and the rule of law. This focus on values is reflected in all its definitions of HRE.

For example, with reference to its commitment to securing the active participation of young people in decisions and actions at local and regional level, the Human Rights Education Youth Programme of the Council of Europe defines HRE as “.educational programmes and activities that focus on promoting equality in human dignity 1, in conjunction with other programmes such as those promoting intercultural learning, participation and empowerment of minorities.” The Council of Europe Charter on Education for Democratic Citizenship and Human Rights Education (2010) 2 defines HRE as education, training, awareness raising, information, practices and activities which aim, by equipping learners with knowledge, skills and understanding and developing their attitudes and behaviour, to empower learners to contribute to the building and defence of a universal culture of human rights in society, with a view to the promotion and protection of human rights and fundamental freedoms.

There are other definitions of human rights education, such as the one of Amnesty International: HRE is a process whereby people learn about their rights and the rights of others, within a framework of participatory and interactive learning. The Asia-Pacific Regional Resource Centre for Human Rights Education makes particular reference to the relation between human rights and the lives of the people involved in HRE: HRE is a participative process which contains deliberately designed sets of learning activities using human rights knowledge, values, and skills as content aimed at the general public to enable them to understand their experiences and take control of their lives.

  • The United Nations World Programme for Human Rights Education defines HRE as: Education, training and information aimed at building a universal culture of human rights.
  • A comprehensive education in human rights not only provides knowledge about human rights and the mechanisms that protect them, but also imparts the skills needed to promote, defend and apply human rights in daily life.

Human rights education fosters the attitudes and behaviours needed to uphold human rights for all members of society. The People’s Movement for Human Rights Learning prefers human rights learning to human rights education and places a special focus on human rights as way of life,

The emphasis on learning, instead of education, is also meant to draw on the individual process of discovery of human rights and apply them to the person’s everyday life. Other organs of society include NGOs and grassroots organisations which generally work to support vulnerable groups, to protect the environment, monitor governments, businesses and institutions and promote social change.

Each NGO brings its own perspective to HRE. Thus, for example, Amnesty International believes that “human rights education is fundamental for addressing the underlying causes of human rights violations, preventing human rights abuses, combating discrimination, promoting equality, and enhancing people’s participation in democratic decision-making processes”.3 At the Forum on Human Rights Education with and by Young People, Living, Learning, Acting for Human Rights, held in Budapest in October 2009, the situation of young people in Europe was presented today as one of “precariousness and instability, which seriously hampers equality of opportunities for many young people to play a meaningful part in society human rights, especially social rights and freedom from discrimination, sound like empty words, if not false promises.

  • Persisting situations of discrimination and social exclusion are not acceptable and cannot be tolerated”.
  • Thus, the forum participants, concerned with equality of opportunity and discrimination, agreed that, “Human rights education must systematically mainstream gender awareness and gender equality perspectives.

Additionally, it must include an intercultural learning dimension; We expect the Council of Europe to mainstream minority issues throughout its human rights education programmes, including gender, ethnicity, religion or belief, ability and sexual-orientation issues”.

  1. Governments and NGOs tend to view HRE in terms of outcomes in the form of desired rights and freedoms, whereas educational academics, in comparison, tend to focus on values, principles and moral choices.
  2. Betty Reardon in Educating for Human Dignity, 1995 states that, “The human rights education framework is intended as social education based on principles and standards to cultivate the capacities to make moral choices, take principled positions on issues – in other words, to develop moral and intellectual integrity”.4 Trainers, facilitators, teachers and other HRE practitioners who work directly with young people tend to think in terms of competences and methodology.

We hope we have made it clear that different organisations, educational providers and actors in human rights education use different definitions according to their philosophy, purpose, target groups or membership. There is, nonetheless, an obvious consensus that human rights education involves three dimensions:

Learning about human rights, knowledge about human rights, what they are, and how they are safeguarded or protected; Learning through human rights, recognising that the context and the way human rights learning is organised and imparted has to be consistent with human rights values (e.g. participation, freedom of thought and expression, etc.) and that in human rights education the process of learning is as important as the content of the learning; Learning for human rights, by developing skills, attitudes and values for the learners to apply human rights values in their lives and to take action, alone or with others, for promoting and defending human rights.

It follows that when we come to think about how to deliver HRE, about how to help people acquire the necessary knowledge, skills and attitudes so they can play their parts within a culture of human rights, we see that we cannot “teach” HRE, but that it has to be learned through experience.

Thus HRE is also education through being exposed to human rights in practice. This means that the how and the where HRE is taking place must reflect human rights values (learning in human rights); the context and the activities have to be such that dignity and equality are an inherent part of practice.

In Compass, we have taken special care to make sure that no matter how interesting and playful the methods and activities may be, a reference to human rights is essential for learning about human rights to be credible. There are also various suggestions for taking action.
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Why is the right of education?

Why is the right to education fundamental? Both individuals and society benefit from the right to education. It is fundamental for human, social, and economic development and a key element to achieving lasting peace and sustainable development.
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What is right to education Question Answer?

Right to Education Act – The Act is completely titled “the Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act”, It was passed by the Parliament in August 2009. When the Act came into force in 2010, India became one among 135 countries where education is a fundamental right of every child.

The 86th Constitutional Amendment (2002) inserted Article 21A in the which states:

“The State shall provide free and compulsory education to all children of 6 to 14 years in such manner as the State, may by law determine.”

As per this, the right to education was made a and removed from the list of Directive Principles of State Policy. The RTE is the consequential legislation envisaged under the 86th Amendment. The article incorporates the word “free” in its title. What it means is that no child (other than those admitted by his/her parents in a school not supported by the government) is liable to pay any kind of fee or charges or expenses which may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. This Act makes it obligatory on the part of the government to ensure admission, attendance and completion of elementary education by all children falling in the age bracket six to fourteen years. Essentially, this Act ensures free elementary education to all children in the economically weaker sections of society.

A few important articles that a candidate must read to cover the notes on the topic, ‘Education,’ comprehensively are linked below:
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What is the right to education essay?

Conclusion of Essay on Right to Education All in all, every citizen must get a chance to get access to education which will enable them to judge, weigh and make decisions for themselves. It is a life-changer for many people all over the world especially those belonging to the underprivileged sector to outshine.
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What is right to education class9?

It is the first fundamental right that has been added to the constitution since India attained independence. The Act makes it obligatory on the State to guarantee right to education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance, and completion of elementary education by every child of 6 to 14 years.
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What is right of education class 8?

What is Right to Education Act (RTE Act)? The Right to Education Act 2009, also known as the RTE Act 2009, was enacted by the Parliament of India on 4 August 2009. It describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India.

This act came into effect on 1 April 2010 and made India one of the 135 countries to have made education a fundamental right for every child. It prescribes minimum norms for elementary schools, prohibits unrecognised schools from practice and advocates against donation fees and interviews of children at the time of admission.

The Right to Education Act keeps a check on all neighbourhoods through regular surveys and identifies children who are eligible for receiving an education but do not have the means to. Educational challenges have been prevalent at both the centre and states for many years in India.

The Right to Education Act 2009 maps out roles and responsibilities for the centre, state and all local bodies to rectify gaps in their education system in order to enhance the quality of education in the country.1. Compulsory and free education for all It is obligatory for the Government to provide free and compulsory elementary education to each and every child, in a neighbourhood school within 1 km, up to class 8 in India.

No child is liable to pay fees or any other charges that may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. Free education also includes the provisions of textbooks, uniforms, stationery items and special educational material for children with disabilities in order to reduce the burden of school expenses.2.

3. Special provisions for special cases The Right to Education Act mandates that an out of school child should be admitted to an age-appropriate class and provided with special training to enable the child to come up to age-appropriate learning level.4. Quantity and quality of teachers

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The Right to Education Act provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified Pupil-Teacher-Ratio is maintained in every school with no urban-rural imbalance whatsoever. It also mandates appointing appropriately trained teachers i.e.

  • Teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.5.
  • Zero tolerance against discrimination and harassment The Right to Education Act 2009 prohibits all kinds of physical punishment and mental harassment, discrimination based on gender, caste, class and religion, screening procedures for admission of children capitation fee, private tuition centres, and functioning of unrecognised schools.

The Right to Education (RTE) Forum’s Stocktaking Report 2014 suggested that across the country, less than 10 per cent of schools comply with all of the Right to Education Act norms and standards. While the enactment of the Right to Education Act 2009 triggered significant improvements, concerns regarding the privatisation of education remain.

Educational inequalities have held a strong ground in India for many years. While the Right to Education Act offers the first step towards an inclusive education system in India, effective implementation of the same still remains to be a challenge.6. Ensuring all-round development of children The Right to Education Act 2009 provides for the development of a curriculum, which would ensure the all-around development of every child.

Build a child’s knowledge, human potential and talent.7. Improving learning outcomes to minimise detention The Right to Education Act mandates that no child can be held back or expelled from school till Class 8. To improve the performances of children in schools, the Right to Education Act introduced the Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) system in 2009 to ensure grade-appropriate learning outcomes in schools.

  • Another reason why this system was initiated was to evaluate every aspect of the child during their time in school so that gaps could be identified and worked on well in time.8.
  • Monitoring compliance of RTE norms School Management Committees (SMCs) play a crucial role in strengthening participatory democracy and governance in elementary education.

All schools covered under the Right to Education Act 2009 are obligated to constitute a School Management Committee comprising of a headteacher, local elected representative, parents, community members etc. The committees have been empowered to monitor the functioning of schools and to prepare a school development plan.9.

  • Right to Education Act is justiciable The Right to Education Act is justiciable and is backed by a Grievance Redressal (GR) mechanism that allows people to take action against non-compliance of provisions of the Right to Education Act 2009.
  • To ensure all schools follow this mandate, Oxfam India in collaboration with JOSH filed a complaint at the Central Information Commission (CIC) in 2011 evoking Section 4 of the Right to Information Act (RTI Act) 2005.

Section 4 of the RTI Act is a proactive disclosure section mandating all public authorities to share information with citizens about their functioning. Since schools are public authorities, compliance to Section 4 was demanded.10. Creating inclusive spaces for all The Right to Education Act 2009 mandates for all private schools to reserve 25 per cent of their seats for children belonging to socially disadvantaged and economically weaker sections.

This provision of the Act is aimed at boosting social inclusion to provide for a more just and equal nation. Why should we support Education for Girls? As per UNICEF data records the adjusted primary net enrolment rate for the year 2014-15 was 91 and 90 for girls. About 31 million girls across the globe do not have access to primary education.

Equality in the sexes in terms of their access to education and health has an intrinsic value in its own light. In India, the total enrolment in primary schools in India during the year 2014-15 was 1, 97,666 where only 95,556 of them were girls. Young girls in India are often forced to or voluntarily drop out of schools since they either have to look after their younger siblings or have to contribute to the household chores.

Centres opened by Oxfam India in different areas in priority and priority plus states help both schools going and non-school going kids to be at par with the school curriculum. The non-school going kids are prepared so that they are able to appear for the admission tests in schools and get enrolled in an age-appropriate class.

A child who was unable to read or write is also taught in a manner that suits his interests leading to maximum learning. If a child fails or is unable to clear her tests or exams she becomes demotivated to continue her studies. Community organizations help these children to complete their schooling through registrations with NIOS.

These community-based organizations also offer various vocational courses like English speaking, stitching, BPO service calling for the girls to be able to be economically dependent. If educated, girls can contribute equally to economic development thus reducing gender imbalances in terms of education which enhances human capital formation.

An extensive study on the human capital theory suggests that education plays a major role in increasing the productivity of the economy by increasing the factor output per worker. Education and human resource development are at the centre of long-term economic developmental plans.

  • The lack of safety and security also leads to girls discontinuing school.
  • Morning school for girl students is followed by afternoon school for boys.
  • Senior students often complain that the boys tease and follow them home at the time when their school is over.
  • Due to they are earlier complaints police patrolling had increased when the girls came out of school however as soon as the number of policemen decreased the boys continued to harass them.

Many girls had dropped out of school because their parents believed that it was no longer safe to send their daughters to school. Despite continuous complaints to both the police as well as SMC members the problem still persists. The NCPCR has introduced new guidelines for the health, hygiene, safety, and security of students both in private and government schools.

The new guidelines point out that girls must be taught about menstrual hygiene and be supported so that they do not miss school. They also state that schools should ensure zero tolerance on any matter related to sexual abuse of a child and stringent action shall be taken against the perpetrators of law.

An educated girl also understands the high importance of education for her future generations and is able to create a better lifestyle and provide better healthcare to her children. Apart from this, educating a girl child will directly reduce infant and maternal mortality rates, child marriages, domestic and sexual violence in families.
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Why is education important short answer?

1. Provides Stability – Education provides stability in life, and it’s something that no one can ever take away from you. By being well-educated and holding a college degree, you increase your chances for better career opportunities and open up new doors for yourself.
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What is education in simple sentence?

1 a : the action or process of educating or of being educated also : a stage of such a process b : the knowledge and development resulting from the process of being educated a person of little education 2 : the field of study that deals mainly with methods of teaching and learning in schools
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Who defined education?

John Dewey (1978): – Education is every one of the ones with developing; it has no closure past itself. (learning is everything alongside development; schooling itself has no last objective behind him).
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Why is education of human rights important?

An Introduction to Human Rights Education

  • What is Human Rights Education?
  • Simply put, human rights education is all learning that develops the knowledge, skills, and values of human rights.
  • The United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004) has defined Human Rights Education as “training, dissemination, and information efforts aimed at the building of a universal culture of human rights through the imparting of knowledge and skills and the molding of attitudes which are directed to:
  1. (a) The strengthening of respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms;
  2. (b) The full development of the human personality and the sense of its dignity;
  3. (c) The promotion of understanding, respect, gender equality, and friendship among all nations, indigenous peoples and racial, national, ethnic, religious and linguistic groups;
  4. (d) The enabling of all persons to participate effectively in a free society;
  5. (e) The furtherance of the activities of the United Nations for the Maintenance of Peace.” (Adapted from the Plan of Action of the United Nations Decade for Human Rights Education (1995-2004), paragraph 2)
  • During this Decade, the UN is urging and supporting all member states to make knowledge about human rights available to everyone through both the formal school system and through popular and adult education.
  • Human Rights Education as a Human Right

Education in human rights is itself a fundamental human right and also a responsibility: the Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) exhorts “every individual and every organ of society” to “strive by teaching and education to promote respect for these rights and freedoms.” The International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights (ICCPR) declares that a government “may not stand in the way of people learning about,” Although news reports refer to human rights every day, “human rights literacy” is not widespread in the United States.

  1. Students of law and international relations or political science may study human rights in a university setting, but most people receive no education, formally or informally, about human rights.
  2. Even human rights activists usually acquire their knowledge and skills by self-teaching and direct experience.

When Americans say, “I’ve got my rights,” they usually think of those defined in the US Bill of Rights, which includes freedom of assembly, freedom of worship, and the right to a fair trial. Few, however, realize that such as health care, housing, or a living wage, are also human rights guaranteed in the UDHR.

  1. People who do not know their rights are more vulnerable to having them abused and often lack the language and conceptual framework to effectively advocate for them.
  2. Growing consensus around the world recognizes education for and about human rights as essential.
  3. It can contribute to the building of free, just, and peaceful societies.

Human rights education is also increasingly recognized as an effective strategy to prevent human rights abuses. Rights, Responsibilities, and Action Integral to learning about one’s human rights is learning about the responsibilities that accompany all rights.

Just as human rights belong to both individuals and society as a whole, the responsibility to respect, defend, and promote human rights is both individual and collective. The Preamble of the UDHR, for example, calls not only on governments to promote human rights, but also on “every individual and every organ of society.” Human rights education provides the knowledge and awareness needed to meet this responsibility.

The responsibilities of all citizens in a democratic society are inseparable from the responsibility to promote human rights. To flourish, both democracy and human rights require people’s active participation. Human rights education includes learning the skills of advocacy – to speak and act every day in the name of human rights.

  • Human rights education also provides a basis for conflict resolution and the promotion of social order.
  • Rights themselves often clash, such as when one person’s commitment to public safety conflicts with another’s freedom of expression.
  • As a value system based on respect and the equality and dignity of all people, human rights can create a framework for analyzing and resolving such differences.

Human rights education also teaches the skills of negotiation, mediation, and consensus building. The Goals of Human Rights Education Human rights education teaches both about human rights and for human rights. Its goal is to help people understand human rights, value human rights, and take responsibility for respecting, defending, and promoting human rights.

  1. Education about human rights provides people with information about human rights. It includes learning –
  2. about the inherent dignity of all people and their right to be treated with respect
  3. about human rights principles, such as the universality, indivisibility, and interdependence of human rights
  4. about how human rights promote participation in decision making and the peaceful resolution of conflicts
  5. about the history and continuing development of human rights
  6. about international law, like the Universal Declaration of Human Rights or the Convention on the Rights of the Child
  7. about regional, national, state, and local law that reinforces international human rights law
  8. about using human rights law to protect human rights and to call violators to account for their actions
  9. about human rights violations such as torture, genocide, or violence against women and the social, economic, political, ethnic, and gender forces which cause them
  10. about the persons and agencies that are responsible for promoting, protecting, and respecting human rights
  11. Education for human rights helps people feel the importance of human rights, internalize human rights values, and integrate them into the way they live. These human rights values and attitudes include –
  12. “strengthening respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms” (UDHR Article 30.2)
  13. nurturing respect for others, self-esteem, and hope
  14. understanding the nature of human dignity and respecting the dignity of others
  15. empathizing with those whose rights are violated and feeling a sense of solidarity with them
  16. recognizing that the enjoyment of human rights by all citizens is a precondition to a just and humane society
  17. perceiving the human rights dimension of civil, social, political, economic, and cultural issues and conflicts both in the US and other countries
  18. valuing non-violence and believing that cooperation is better than conflict
  19. Education for human rights also gives people a sense of responsibility for respecting and defending human rights and empowers them through skills to take appropriate action. These skills for action include –
  20. recognizing that human rights may be promoted and defended on an individual, collective, and institutional level
  21. developing critical understanding of life situations
  22. analyzing situations in moral terms
  23. realizing that unjust situations can be improved
  24. recognizing a personal and social stake in the defense of human rights
  25. analyzing factors that cause human rights violations
  26. knowing about and being able to use global, regional, national, and local human rights instruments and mechanisms for the protection of human rights
  27. strategizing appropriate responses to injustice
  28. acting to promote and defend human rights
  29. Who Needs Human Rights Education?

Human rights should be part of everyone’s education. However, certain groups have a particular need for human rights education: some because they are especially vulnerable to human rights abuses, others because they hold official positions and upholding human rights is their responsibility, still others because of their ability to influence and educate.

  • law enforcement personnel, including police and security forces
  • prison officials
  • lawyers, judges, and prosecutors

Other Government and Legislative Officials:

  • members of the legislature
  • public officials, elected and appointed
  • members of the military

Other Professionals:

  • educators
  • social workers
  • health professionals
  • journalists and media representatives

Organizations, Associations, and Groups

  • women’s organizations
  • community activists and civic leaders
  • minority groups
  • members of the business community
  • trade unionists
  • indigenous peoples
  • religious leaders and others with a special interest in social justice issues
  • children and youth
  • students at all levels of education
  • refugees and displaced persons
  • people of all sexual orientations
  • poor people, whether in cities or rural areas
  • people with disabilities
  • migrant workers
  • Source: Nancy Flowers, Human Rights Educators’ Network, Amnesty International USA and Kristi Rudelius-Palmer, Partners in Human Rights Education.

Human rights is not a subject that can be studied at a distance. Students should not just learn about the Universal Declaration, about racial injustice, or about homelessness without also being challenged to think about what it all means for them personally.
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When was education a human right?

Who is responsible for enforcing the right to education? – Governments must provide good quality education and make sure all children can access it, without discrimination. This is an international legal obligation and governments can be held accountable for failing to provide education for all its citizens.

Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) Convention Against Discrimination in Education (1960) International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights (1966) Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women (1979) African Charter on Human and People’s Rights (1986) Convention on the Rights of the Child (1989) World Declaration on Education for All: Meeting Basic Learning Needs (1990) The Dakar Framework for Action: Education for All (2000) Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities (2006) UN General Assembly Resolution on the Right to Education in Emergency Situations (2010)

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What is Human Rights Education PDF?

Human Rights Education is defined as ‘ the learning of law of human rights, its history, theory, etc.’ Education is necessary to develop human personality and it is helpful to strength human rights & fundamental freedom of the individual.
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What is right to education Brainly?

Right to education means that education is the fundamental right of every individual and it is the government’s responsibility to ensure that individuals are able to exercise their right. Article 21-A of the Constitution of India lays down the rules and regulations to be followed to ensure the right to education.
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What is right to education PPT?

Right to education

  1. 1.26-3-2013 FOR THE PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF PRE-Ph.D COURSE WORK AT MALWA CENTRAL COLLEGE OF EDUCATION FOR WOMEN,LUDHIANA PRESENTED BY SUNDEEP KAUR DHILLON ROLL NO.14
  2. What is RTE? The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act or Right to Education Act (RTE), which was passed by the Indian parliament on 4 August 2009, describes the modalities of the provision of free and compulsory education for children between 6 and 14 in India under Article 21A of the Indian Constitution. India became one of 135 countries to make education a fundamental right of every child when the act came into force on 1 April 2010.
  3. • “Compulsory Education” defined as the obligation of the State to take all necessary steps to ensure that every child participates in, and completes Elementary Education • “Free Education” defined as freedom from liability to (i) pay any fee to the school, and (ii) incur such other prescribed expenses as may be likely to prevent the child from participating in and completing Elementary Education. There is no direct (school fees) or indirect cost (uniforms, textbooks, mid-day meals, transportation) to be borne by the child or the parents to obtain elementary education. The government will provide schooling free-of-cost until a child’s elementary education is completed.
  4. CHILDREN BENEFITED Approx 22 crore children fall under the age group 6-14. Out of which 4.1% i.e.92 lakhs children either dropped out from school or never attend any educational institution. These children will get elementary education. Local and state government will ensure it.
  5. OBJECTIVES  To provide for free and compulsory education to all children of the age 6 to 14 years.  Emphasis is on children belonging to disadvantaged group.
  6. Protection of RTE Act : Act assigns NCPCR/SCPCR additional functions. Examine and review safeguards for rights under this Act, recommend measures for effective implementation. Inquire into complaints relating to child’s right to free and compulsory education. NCPCR/SCPCR have powers assigned under Section14 and 24 of the Commissions for Protection of Child Rights Act. Where SCPCR not constituted, appropriate govt. may constitute an authority.
  7. Definitions: Section 2 i) Govt. Schools ii) Aided schools iii) School belonging to specified categories: (Kendriya Vidyalaya, Navodaya Vidyalaya, Sainik School etc.) iv) Unaided schools Sec.2 (d) “Child belonging to disadvantaged group” 2 (e) “Child belonging to weaker section” 2 (f) “Elementary Education” 2 (h) “Local Authority” 2 (n) “School – 4 categories of schools”
  8. Sec.3 – Right of child to free and compulsory education in a neighbourhood school till completion of elementary education. “Compulsory education means obligation of the state to provide free elementary education to every child of the age 6-14 years”
  9. Sec.4 – Special provisions for children not admitted to, or who have not completed, elementary education. Such children are to be directly admitted in a class appropriate to his or her age and in order to be at par with others, have a right to receive special training and shall be entitled to free education till completion of elementary education even after 14 years.
  10. Sec.9 – Describes the duties of the local authority. Sec.10 – Describes the duty of parents & guardian to admit his or her child/ward in the neighbourhood school for elementary education. Sec.11 – States the duty of the appropriate government to provide for pre-school education
  11. Sec.12 – Extent of school’s responsibility: (1) to admit children belonging to weaker sections and disadvantaged group in the ‘neighbourhood’ in Class I at least upto 25% of the strength of the class. (2) an unaided school will be reimbursed expenditure incurred by it to the extent of per child expenditure incurred by the State or the actual amount charged from the child, whichever is less. Reimbursement shall not exceed per child expenditure incurred by a govt. school. (3) every school shall provide such information as may be required by the govt. or local authority.
  12. Sec.13 – No capitation fee to be charged. (The All India Catholic Education Policy, 2007 also deplores any attempt to commercialize education and acceptance of capitation fee). No screening either of the child or of the parents for admission. Sec.14 – Age of the child is to be determined on the basis of the birth certificate issued in accordance with the provisions of the Births, Deaths and Marriage Registration Act, 1886 or Hospital register record or Anganwadi record or even an Affidavit. No child shall be denied admission in a school for lack of age proof.
  13. Sec.15 – No denial of admission even if the child does not turn up at the commencement of the academic year. Sec.16 – No child once admitted, can be held back or expelled till the completion of elementary education. Sec.17 – No child shall be subjected to physical punishment or mental harassment.
  14. Sec.18 – No school to be established without obtaining certificate of recognition. Sec.19 – Schools to fulfill all the norms and standards specified in the schedule. Sec.20 – Power of the Govt. to amend the schedule
  15. • 75% from parents/guardians • Of the remaining 25%: • 1/3 members from amongst elected members of the local authority • 1/3members from the teachers of the school to be decided by the teachers • Remaining 1/3 from amongst local educationists/children in the school to be decided by the parents in the committee • The SMC shall elect a Chairperson and Vice-Chairperson from among the parent members. • The Head Teacher/Senior most teacher of the school shall be the ex-officio member – convener. • The SMC is to meet at least once a month and maintain minutes and decisions of the meetings. • Prepare a 3 year school development plan. Sec.21 – Every school should constitute a School Management Committee (SMC) consisting of: a) Monitor the working of the school, b) Prepare and recommend school development plan, c) Monitor the utilization of the grants received from the govt., d) Perform other functions as may be prescribed. Functions of the SMC. The SMC shall
  16. Sec.22 – Preparation of School Development Plan by the SMC. Sec.23 – States that the qualification for appointment and terms and conditions of service of teachers shall be as laid down by the academic authority authorized by the Govt. Sec.24 – Duties of teachers. Teachers shall maintain regularity & punctuality, complete the curriculum, hold regular meetings with parents/guardians, etc.
  17. Sec.25 – Pupil-Teacher Ratio as specified in the schedule is to be maintained, i.e., Classes I-V 30:1. Above 200 children P-T ratio shall not exceed 40. Classes V-VIII 1:35, but at least one teacher per class. Sec.26 – Filling up of vacancies of teachers. Sec.27 – Prohibition of deployment of teachers for non-educational purposes other than decennial population census, disaster relief duties and for election duties. Sec.28 – No private tuition by teachers.
  18. Sec.29 – (1) Curriculum and evaluation procedure for elementary education shall be laid down by academic authority to be specified by the appropriate government, (2) (f) medium of instruction shall, as far as practicable, be in child’s mother tongue, (2) (h) comprehensive and continuous evaluation of child’s understanding etc. Sec.30 – 1) No child shall be required to pass any board exam till completion of elementary education, 2) Every child completing elementary education shall be awarded a certificate.
  19. Sec.31 – The National Commission or the State Commission for Protection of Child Rights constituted under the Commission of Protection of Child Rights Act, 2005, shall in addition to the functions assigned to it, monitor, enquire into complaints relating to child’s right to free and compulsory education and/or function as Appellate Authority above the local authority (Sec.32), Sec.33 – Speaks of a National Advisory Council. Sec.34 – Speaks of the State Advisory council and their functions.
  20. Sec.35 – The appropriate government may issue guidelines and give directions to the local authority or to the School Managing Committee. Sec.36 – No prosecution for offences without previous sanction of the appropriate authority. Sec.37 – No suit or legal proceeding shall lie against action taken in good faith. Sec.38 – Appropriate government may make rules for carrying out the provisions of this Act.
  21. Schedule 1. Teacher-Pupil Ratio: • I-V – upto 120 students – 1:30 upto 120-200 students – 1:40 (+ H.M.) more than 200 students – 1:40 (+ H.M.) • VI-VIII – 1:35 Full Time – Science and Mathematics, Social Studies, Language Part Time – Art Education, Health & Physical Education, Work Education
  22. 2. Building : : all weather building, : separate toilets for boys & girls : safe and adequate drinking water : kitchen for MDM : playground : secured by boundary wall
  23. 3. Minimum working Days – I-V = 200 VI-VIII = 220 Instructional Hours – I-V = 800 I-VIII = 1000
  24. 4. Minimum Working Hours per week for teachers – 45 (including preparation hours).5. Provide – – Teaching-Learning Equipment – Library – Games & Sports and other play materials.
  25. Model Rules under the Right of Children to Free & Compulsory Education Act 2009
  26. Key Points: 1) The area or limits of neighborhood : Classes I – V – within walking distance of 1 km. Classes VI – VIII – within walking distance of 3 kms.2) Where no school exists within the area or limits specified, government has to make provision for free transportation, residential facilities and other facilities.3) In areas with high population density, the State may establish more than one neighbourhood school.
  27. 4) The State has to make appropriate and safe transportation arrangements for children with disabilities.5) The State to ensure that access of children to the school is not hindered on account of social and cultural factors.6) The responsibility of providing free entitlement (text books, writing materials and uniforms, special support materials for children with disabilities, etc) shall be of the school in case of school belonging to specified category and unaided schools.
  28. 7) The local authority shall maintain a record of all children in its jurisdiction through household survey from their birth till they attain 14 years. The record has to be updated each year.8) Per child expenditure is defined and calculated as the total annual recurring expenditure incurred by the State divided by the total number of children enrolled in all such schools. (Govt. aided schools are not considered as govt. schools in this regard.) 9) Every school receiving reimbursement from the government should maintain separate bank account.
  29. 10) Every non-government school existing before the commencement of the Act has to make a self declaration within 3 months in Form No. I to the concerned DEO regarding its compliance or otherwise for its recognition. Schools which do not conform to the norms, standards and conditions after 3 years from the commencement of the Act shall cease to function. Compliance include: (1) The school is open to inspection by any officer appointed by the appropriate authority, (2) The school undertakes to furnish reports and information as may be required by the DEO from time to time, etc.
  30. 11) Every non-government school established after the Act came into force has to conform to the norms, standards and conditions stated in order to qualify for recognition.12) Every school, other than an unaided school, should constitute a School Management Committee (SMC).
  31. 13) An Academic Authority (the SCERT) to lay down minimum academic qualifications for persons eligible for appointment as a teacher.14) The SMC shall be the first level of grievance redressal of teachers.15) The State government should constitute Schools Tribunals at the State, District and Block levels for grievance redressal.16) Where the State Commission for Protection of Child Rights does not exist, the State government shall appoint an interim authority – Right to Education Protection Authority (REPA).
  32. Commonlyraised issues/FAQs: • Enforcement of the Fundamental Rights is the duty of the state. Now the state is enforcing it on others including the minorities. • RTE Act threatens to take away the rights granted and guaranteed to the minorities under the constitution • RTE Act does not mention the word ‘minority’ at all anywhere in the act. • Will RTEA negate/black out the Art.30? Writs are already filed and pending in the S.C. • 25% seats to be reserved for disadvantaged groups. How do you identify “children belonging to disadvantaged group”? What happens if more than 25% come for admission?
  33. • Under the act, compulsory education starts at the age of 6. Normally our schools admit children in UKG or LKG depending on the age. So in our schools admission will have to be from Pre-school. • Where a child is directly admitted in a class appropriate to his/her age, he/she has a right to receive special training to be at par with others. How do you do that? • Regarding age proof even an affidavit will suffice. Now, can you insist on hospital certificate or baptism certificate? • No test or interview for admission. So what are the consequences? How will you reconcile this?
  34. • Government will prescribe a common syllabus. What happens to your school syllabus? • The school has to provide entitlements (books, uniforms even transportation) to the 25% disadvantaged students. • The government is supposed to provide books for them but will not match with the text books you are using? Moreover, the books from govt. quota hardly come in time. So what’s the solution? National curriculum? • There is provision for MDM for the disadvantaged children. How are you going to handle that? • Government will reimburse all the expenses as per its norms. The school has to maintain a separate bank account for the amount received.
  35. • No child is to be detained up to class 8. On completion of class 8 a child is to be given a certificate stating that s/he has completed the course. • No physical punishment or mental harassment of the child while in school. (“Spare the rod and spoil the child” ?) • No disciplinary action ; no expulsion of students is possible. • School buildings cannot be used for non-educational purpose. What does it mean?
  36. • Every school, other than an unaided school (exempted under Model Rule 13), must have a School Managing Committee (SMC). • 75% of the members must be parents/guardians of the children. Remaining from local representatives of the people, teachers representatives etc.50 % are to be women. • Prima facie it appears that only one person, namely the School Head can represent the management. Doesn’t it violate the minority right under Art.30? • What happens to the existing Governing Board? With this the virtual control of the school will be with the SMC. • Are they qualified, competent to carry out these responsibilities including financial affairs such as school development plan, annual accounts of receipts and payments etc.?
  37. • No school can be established without obtaining certificate of registration. • Existing schools, too, have to obtain registration. • Recognition once granted can also be withdrawn on condition of non fulfillment of norms, standards, conditions etc. Hence there will always loom large the fear and threat of de- recognition under some pretext or other. • No tuitions are allowed. Can our schools tighten the noose on our teachers in this regard?
  38. • Doesn’t the idea of admitting children to the ‘neighborhood school’ take away the freedom of parents/guardians to choose the school of their choice?. Will the govt. servants, politicians etc. do the same? • No prosecution of any offence under the act without previous sanction of an authorized officer. That seems to give a ray of hope. • The school has to furnish such reports and information as may be required by the DEO including copy of the audited report. The school is also open to inspection by any officer appointed by the govt. or local authority. This can be used as a sword of Damocles. It’s a clear and blatant violation of Fundamental Right of Minorities.
  39. • No explicit reference to child labour: Clause 8 casts a compulsion on the State to provide free and compulsory education to every child. • Explanation to Clause 8(a): ‘compulsory education’ means obligation of the appropriate Government to provide free compulsory education and ensure compulsory admission, attendance and completion of EE by every child. • Therefore it is far better way of curbing child labour – by legally declaring that every child has to be in school.
  40. • On the inclusion of private schools: Forefront of all controversies. One view: Article 21-A states that ‘the State shall provide free and compulsory education’ means that schools which receive no financial aid from the Government should be kept outside the purview of the Bill. Another view: ‘State’ does not merely mean governmental system, but includes government and private systems. Private fee-charging schools are an impediment to the concept of ‘common school system’, and should be brought within the ambit of the legislation. The Bill avoids both these extreme positions: provides for 25% admission to children belonging to weaker sections & disadvantaged groups in the neighbourhood
  41. • Adequacy of norms and standards: This is a beginning. Clause 20 of the Bill also provides for the Central Government to amend the schedule by adding to or omitting from the schedule. As we progress the norms and standards can be enhanced. • Inclusion of parents in the compulsion laws. Why is there no provision for punishment for parents? : Most children who do not attend school are from weaker sections and disadvantaged groups. Penalising their parents would be tantamount to penalizing poverty. Many children are first generation learners, deprived of a learning environment at home, and drop out because of difficulty in coping with the curriculum. Inflicting penalties on parents because their children have have been pushed out of the education system would be discriminatory.
  42. • Why no detention, no examinations? Wouldn’t quality suffer?: Examinations are known to produce mental trauma. Fear of failure, particularly at a tender age, leads to loss of self esteem. • ‘No detention policy’ does not imply abandoning procedures that test the learning abilities of the child; • ‘No detention policy’ implies putting in place a continuous and comprehensive procedure of child evaluation and recording it so that the teacher can use it as a guide in helping each child reach desired levels of educational achievement.
  43. • Issue of finances: Mechanism of central and state funding: Bill provides that (i) Central Government shall prepare the estimates of capital and recurring expenditure, (ii) Central Government shall provide to the State Governments a percentage of the expenditure as GIA of revenues. This percentage shall be determined from time to time in consultation with the States, (iii)Central Government may make a request to the President to make a reference to the Finance Commission to examine the need for additional resources to be provided to any State Government for carrying out the provisions of the Act. Finance Commission allocations, specific to elementary education, would be welcomed by the States, as they would provide for direct central funding without being dependent on central schemes
  44. • Why only 6 – 14; why not 0 – 18 year? According to several activists, “The Bill allows only children between the age 6-14 to get the privileges, which we think is so shallow.” They think that leaving out early childhood care and education, and senior schooling seriously limits the right to education. They explain: “0 to 6 years is considered to be the formative years in the child’s upbringing. We don’t see a reason why a child of this age group should be excluded. And India has signed the U.N. charter which states clearly that free education should be made compulsory to children of 0-18 years old.” The act excludes 157 million children below six years of age and children between 15-18 years.
  45. • Disabled were left out of education Bill but now added through an amendment: The chances of 20 million children with physical and other disabilities to get the right to education has been jeopardized, as the Right to Education Bill excludes them. Although the earlier draft of the Bill had made specific mention of children with disabilities, the Bill tabled in the Lok Sabha has erased those references, activists say. Activists say that India was the one of the first countries to ratify the UN Convention on Rights of Persons with Disabilities, in October 2007, which says “State parties shall ensure that persons with disabilities are not excluded from the general education system on the basis of disability and that children with disabilities are not excluded from free and compulsory primary education or from secondary education on the basis of disability.” Now they have been added through amendment but learning disabled are still left.
  46. • Requirement of qualified and trained teachers: The elementary education part of our system already suffers from shortage of teachers and a fairly large number of teachers of this segment are untrained. To get trained and qualified teachers within stipulated period is not only going to prove a Herculean task but appears to be almost impossible. A gradual and systematic influx of teachers would have been better approach. Teachers will be at the core of implementation of RTE that seeks to work towards a heterogeneous and democratic classroom where all children participate as equal partners. There are 57 lakh posts of teachers at primary and upper primary level.
  47. • Currently, more than 5.23 lakh teacher posts are vacant. To bring the pupil-teacher ratio to 30:1 as prescribed by the RTE Act, 5.1 lakh additional teachers are required. Already, there are 5.1 lakh schools with a pupil-teacher ratio of more than 30:1. On top of that 5.48 lakh untrained teachers at the primary and 2.25 lakh at upper primary level have to acquire necessary qualification within five years of the RTE Act coming into force. • The states with high percentage of untrained teachers and inadequate teacher education capacity are: Assam (55.13% untrained teachers), Bihar (45.5%), Chhattisgarh (31.32%), J&K (43.34%), Jharkhand (32.16%), Uttar Pradesh (25.87%) and West Bengal (32.15%). States like Andhra Pradesh, Delhi, Gujarat, Haryana, Himachal Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Punjab, Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu and Uttarakhand have very low percentage of untrained teachers. They also have adequate capacity for teacher education.
  48. • No standard definition of teacher qualification : The existing elementary teacher education programs (known variously in different parts of the country as JBT, D. Ed., PTC, BSTC, etc) lack a bench mark and proper definition. Teachers trained for secondary classes (classes IX, X, XI, XII) are considered eligible to teach middle classes (VI, VII, and VIII). But teachers trained to teach the elementary classes are only eligible to teach classes I – V. Even the Supreme Court has accepted this argument. Now the TRE Act is for the kids in the age group 6—14 studying in classes I – VIII. So a clear definition of teaching eligibility is required so that a teacher can teach all these eight classes. This will also help administratively as well as keep teachers motivated.
  49. • Reservation of seats in unaided private schools: The act talks about 25% seat reservation in private/public unaided school for lesser privileged children. The fees of these students will be borne by state government. The fee will be reimbursed at government rate. There will be a wide gap between the cost of education per child and the reimbursement by the government. Who will bear this deficit portion ?obviously the remaining 75% of the students. For a certain class of society who provides education to their kids in these private school already by stretching their means this extra burden might prove too much. It’s like providing benefit to one at the cost of other. Would improving the standard of the government school be not a better and more justified option?
  50. • Status of poor kids in the private schools. A glaring question is: how interested are the parents of the poor kids to send them to the private schools even if the education is free of cost? The kids will be suddenly exposed to a different living standard. Will they be treated with dignity and equality by their peers and teachers? Will it not be traumatic for the poor kids to cope with that? Moreover, what about the overhead expenses such as uniform, books, stationery, etc of attending a private school? The chances are high that the parents themselves would feel intimidated at the thought of sending their kids to private schools.
  51. • Input oriented Act: The Act is deemed to be excessively input- focused rather than outcome-oriented. The bill guarantees for the admission of the children, but does not promise the quality of education. • Admission according to age but no facility for bridge courses. The act stipulates that the child should be assigned the class according to age, which is a good step because wasted years can be saved; but no bridge course is suggested that can prepare the child to adjust to the admitted class.
  52. • Automatic passage to next class may be counter productive. As per the act, every student will be passed to the next class. This can promote indolence and insincerity among children towards their studies and carelessness and laxity among the teachers. The Act will create a system with no incentive for students to try to improve themselves, or to behave with a modicum of restraint. It compromises their ability to withstand pressure and compete harder in order to excel. This will create a generation of drifters who have never tasted hard work or competition. And what happens when the kids turn 14? Leaving aside some notable successes, there will be millions who have just gone through the system without gaining much – and valuable formative years of life wasted.
  53. • School recognition. Section 19 of the Act requires all schools except government schools, to meet certain norms and standards relating to infrastructure, pupil-teacher ratio, and teacher salaries on the basis of which they are required to get recognition within three years. This clause penalizes private unrecognized schools, although they provide similar, if not better, teaching services compared to government schools, while spending a much smaller amount. They are susceptible to extinction in three years.
  54. • School management Committee a burden for parents. The Act requires every government and aided school to form a School management Committee (SMC) which will be most comprised of parents and will be responsible for planning managing the operations of the school. SMC members are required to volunteer their time and effort. This can be a burden for the poor parents. And for the aided schools, the SMC rule will lead to a breakdown of their existing management structures.
  55. • What are problems with the Act and its implementation? Many activists feel, that exempting private minority schools from admitting poor students is the biggest drawback as many private schools will exploit this. Bachpan Bachao Andolan, an NGO, conducted a study across 9 states last year to understand the impact of the Right to Education Act and discovered some disturbing trends.The names of a large number of students were enrolled but they were not in schools. Bodies which are to implement the Right to Education Act haven’t even been set up in many states. • How will children of migrant families receive education? There are two options; if children migrate with parents, particularly small children, the schools in the migrated areas have to admit all children even if they can not produce transfer certificates. Or if the parents demand that their children be given education in their native place while they are away for work, appropriate governments/local authorities shall have to ensure the availability of free residential schools •
  56. • What about a child without parents or guardian? Section 2(k) only defines the parents of a child, and section 10 also refers to parent’s duty in ensuring education of their children. However since under Section 8 (explanation (i)), the ‘compulsion’ is on the state and not on parents, the appropriate government shall have to take the responsibility to ensure education of children without parents. • Why compulsion not on parents? In a country like India where such a large majority of parents are poor, migrate for work, do not have support systems, putting compulsion on them, with punishment, would imply punishing them for being poor – which is not their choice. As the well- known educationist J.P.Naik once jocularly remarked, if parents are sent to jail for not sending their children to schools, there may be more parents in jails than children in schools!
  57. • If parents don’t send children to schools? Section (10) of the Act makes it the duty of the parents to ensure that their children go to schools, without prescribing any punishment. This implies that SMC members, local authorities and community at large must persuade reluctant parents to fulfil their duty. For child labour and street children, the government would have to ensure that they are not compelled to work and provide schools for them, perhaps residential in many instances. Parents and communities who traditionally forbid their adolescent girls from going to school, or indulge in child marriage would have to be persuaded, or the child marriages act would need to be invoked against them. Civil society interventions would be crucial here.
  58. • Is the Act targeted only for weaker sections? No, it is universal. Any child who is a citizen of India, rich or poor; boy or girl; born to parents of any caste, religion or ethnicity shall have this right. If a rich parent decides to send his/her child to a school owned by the government/local authority, that child would also have a right to all the free entitlements. Only those children who are sent by their parents to a school that charges fees (private aided/unaided) will surrender their right, as per Section 8(a) of the Act, to free entitlements; they can not claim reimbursement from the government for their educational expenditure (except for the obligatory 25% quota for children of disadvantaged groups and weaker sections to unaided schools, described later).
  59. • Would home based education to the severely disabled come within the purview of the Act? As the Act stands, education would be inclusive for all categories of disability, including severe and profound. • What about children not in schools right now? The Act, at Section 4 lays down that all children who are out of school, as never enrolled or drop outs (in the 6-14 age group), would have to be admitted in age appropriate class in regular schools, and they would have a right to complete elementary education even after crossing age 14.
  60. • What if children admitted after age 6 complete age 14 before completing class 8? They would have the right to get free education till they complete class 8, even if they exceed age 14. This would apply, for example, to a 13 year never enrolled child who may take 5 years to complete class VIII, up to the age of 18 years, or more. • What about age proof and transfer certificates? In the absence of a regular birth certificate issued under the Births, Deaths and Marriages Registration Act 1886, a certificate based on hospital record, anganwadi record or an affidavit by the parents/guardian would suffice (Model Rule 9). However, under section 14(2) of the Act, if none of these are available, including a notarized affidavit, a child would not be denied admission, meaning if the parents say the child is six years or more, admission would have to be given, while any of the above mentioned documents is simultaneously arranged.The head teacher would have to immediately issue a transfer certificate to a child moving away from the school, or face disciplinary action in case of delay.
  61. • Who will bear most of the expenses? How will the center and state sharing be determined? A sharing pattern will be arrived at through mutual negotiations between the central and state governments. The SSA norms and sharing patterns will need to be reviewed. For example, the RTE-SSA harmonization committee’s report has already recommended a 75:25 sharing pattern between the center and the states instead of the present 55:45 sharing ratio under the SSA. • What does the reference to Finance Commission in section 7(4) imply? It implies that on the basis of a reference by the central government through the President, the Finance Commission could sanction monies directly to states for the Act, which would be in addition to the sharing ratio of the centrally sponsored scheme operating the Act. It provides an additional window for central funds to be allocated to states that need them most. The 13th Finance Commission has since made allocations of Rs 24068 crore over a five year period specifically for elementary education. This will help States meet their 15% state share towards SSA – from the sliding scale of 65:35 in 2008-09 to 50:50 in 2011-12, but may be inadequate to meet the RTE requirements.
  62. • Will all double shift schools become single shift? The implications of the number of hours for which a school shall function per day indicate that. This would go a long way in forcing children out of labour since double shifts allow them to go to schools as also to engage in labour. • What will happen in places where government land is not available for building a neighbourhood school? Many states face this problem in urban areas in particular, but in rural areas too, as in Bihar where most of the land is in private hands. Since a school is a fundamental right of children now, the government will have to hire accommodation for schools, or consider acquiring or buying land, as it does for other projects of national importance.
  63. • Whose responsibility is it to ensure children, particularly of the disadvantaged groups, are not discriminated against? Legally, of the appropriate governments, local authorities and the schools; monitored by the SMCs, civil society groups and the NCPCR/SCPCRs. Model Rule 5, (3) and (4) explains this in clear terms: (3) The State government/local authority shall ensure that no child is subjected to caste, class, religious or gender abuse in the school. (4) For the purposes of clause (c) of section 8 and clause (c) of section 9, the State Government and the Local Authority shall ensure that a child belonging to a weaker section and a child belonging to disadvantaged group is not segregated or discriminated against in the classroom, during mid day meals, in the play grounds, in the use of common drinking water and toilet facilities, and in the cleaning of toilets or classrooms.
  64. • Who will ensure good quality education? The governments and the academic institutions under them, like the NCTE, NCERT, SCERTs and so on, by ensuring that the norms and standards of the schools are adhered to within three years, all teachers are professionally trained in a maximum of five years, curriculum, content and process follows principles laid out in Section 29, a comprehensive and continuous evaluation system is in place, and children learn in an atmosphere free of fear, anxiety and trauma. The governments would be well advised to seek collaboration from university education departments and civil society groups that have experience in quality elementary education in this effort. These would be monitored by the NCPCR/SCPCRs and civil society institutions. In addition, as per the model rules 21(3), the appropriate governments must undertake systemic quality reviews periodically through institutions of renown, which are not confined only to testing children’s achievement scores, but include assessment of teacher quality, curricular issues, social discrimination, infrastructure and other parameters that impact on quality. The involvement of institutions of higher learning on a continuous basis would be critical in this respect.
  65. • What if the teacher remains absent or does not teach properly? Disciplinary action can be taken against the teacher (Section 24(2)). Under Model Rules 18(2) (a), it is prescribed that the service rules of teachers should mandate the accountability of teachers to the School Management Committees. • How long do governments have to ensure the PTR as given in the schedule? There is a certain ambiguity about this in the Act. Section 25(1) says that the PTR ratio shall be maintained in each school within six months of notification of the Act. However for implementing the schedule of norms and standards of the school, that prescribes the PTR ratio, a three year time period has been given. States like Bihar, UP, Assam and Orissa that need to recruit a huge number of new teachers could use this ambiguity by sanctioning all the required posts and redeploying teachers in the first six months, and complete all the recruitments as early as possible, within the three year time frame.
  66. • What will be the redressal mechanism if a child is denied admission, beaten up or discriminated against? One may assume that a number of complaints would be settled at the school and SMC level itself, through the intervention of civil society groups. If that does not happen, the next step would be for the complaint to be filed with the local authority. The complainant could appeal to the SCPCR if the action of the local authority does not redress the complaint satisfactorily. • Can NCPCR/SCPCR act on their own, even if a complaint has not been filed? Yes, both the NCPCR and the SCPCRs can move on their own, suo moto, without any one specifically filing a complaint. As per Model Rule 25, SCPCRs shall set up child help lines, accessible by SMS, telephone and letter for receiving and registering complaints.
  67. • What kind of powers do the NCPCR/SCPCR have? Can they punish? Under the NCPCR Act 2005, the NCPCR and SCPCRs have quasi-judicial powers whereby they can investigate, summon and recommend cases to the courts. They can not, however, pass judgments and hand out punishments. • What about the courts? Which court can one go to and who can go? As a law flowing out of a fundamental right, it is justiciable from the lowest to the highest court of the country. One can file a case in the lowest civil court, or the Supreme/High Court, depending on the nature of complaint. • Is there any role for NGO’s/civil society groups in monitoring? NCPCR has already initiated moves to work through civil society groups in a variety of ways. Independent of that, NGOs and other civil society groups can on their own bring violations to the notice of authorities and courts. An example of that is the civil society group Social Jurist working in Delhi. They can ensure opening of neighbourhood schools, monitoring teacher availability, and help in local redressal mechanisms.
  68. • What if the problems are not at local levels, like unavailability of funds, insufficient teacher recruitment and so on? Since the ‘compulsion’ in the Act is on the governments, the NCPCR/SCPCR and the courts shall have to investigate where the onus of a particular violation rests, and judge accordingly • Who makes the Rules; centre or state governments? Since both the central and state governments are involved, both shall have to make rules. The central rules have already been finalized, and a set of model rules for the states have been circulated by the centre to the states. The states can either accept the model rules as circulated or make appropriate changes in them. Finally, the central government has to place the rules in the Parliament, and the states in their respective legislatures. The rules can be modified by the centre or the states as and when necessary.
  69. PTIMUMBAI,APRIL4,2010|UPDATED14:40IST RTEActfacesinfrastructure,HRhurdles:Experts • Hailing the implementation of the Right to Education Act years after it was first conceived during a convention in 1932, education experts have said infrastructure and human resources would be the two major hurdles for the Act.”Where the Act has the potential of turning India into a superpower by educating our youth, we have to be very careful to see that it is implemented well,” CEO of Pune based Global Talent Track (GTT) Dr Uma Ganesh toldPTI. Some state governments have already raised flags stating that they are not ready to implement RTE as they lack the infrastructure, she said.Ganesh said when the human resources scenario in India was taken into account, the student and teacher ratio in the country stood anywhere between 50:1 to 80:1.”With the 30:1 ratio stipulated by the Act, we will require at least 12 lakh additional trained teachers in next six months,” she said. Appointing teachers should not be a problem as we have the advantage of a large population. However, finding quality teachers is certainly a concern as they will be responsible for shaping futures of millions of youths, she added. The concern is deepened by Annual Status of Education Report 2009 (ASER 2009), released on 15th January this year, which states only 50 per cent of Class V students in the government schools are capable of reading at Class II level,” Ganesh said.
  70. ​Staffshortagetakestollonqualityof education: Rupa Giri, TNN|Mar11, 2013, 05.11 AM IST RANCHI: Education seems to be low on the government’s priority list with 40,000 vacant seats of teachers and the future of 45 lakh students studying in government schools at stake. According to provisions of the Right to Education (RTE) Act, the student-teacher ratio should be 30:1 in Classes I to V and 35:1 in Classes VI to VII. But the schools are violating the RTE provisions and jeopardizing the career of lakhs of students in the state. With about 43,000 government schools in the state, there are 27,000 recruited teachers against a total of 67,000 sanctioned strength. Beside, 90% of the schools are running without headmasters. According to an HRD official, the teachers’ eligibility test (TET), an examination meant for recruitment of teachers in the state, has not been conducted for the past two years. Though the department announced the date of the test several times, but the exams were cancelled. Member of the Jharkhand Primary and Secondary Teachers’ Association Parsuram Tiwari said, “We are facing a lot of problem in teaching large number of students at a time because of staff crunch. ” The shortage of 40,000 teachers in the state is adversely affecting the education system as a whole. The department says that they will recruit teachers but they fail to do so each time, added Tiwari. This apart, teachers have to look after the midday-meal scheme and various other programmes and are even engaged in various government programmes along with elections. In all this, the students are the one worst affected. Tiwari said that TET was conducted in 2011 against the vacancy of 18,600 posts generated against a total of 25,000 vacant seats. In the advertisement announcement, there was a provision of taking two sets of examinations. The candidates passing TET would have to take another exam. But only 5000 teachers passed the examination. The HRD then made a sudden announcement that they would not conduct the main exam as the candidates passing the examinations are less as compared to the vacant posts and that they would be directly recruited. Seeing this, several candidates challenged the decision of the HRD in court, owing to which the state government’s efforts to fill up the vacant posts of teachers suffered a major setback when the Jharkhand high court cancelled TET conducted by the Jharkhand Academic Council (JAC) in 2011. Hearing the writ petition filed by Anjuman Tarique Urdu, a division bench of Chief Justice Prakash Tatia and Justice P P Bhatt ordered for cancellation of the recruitment process. The petitioner had alleged that the TET was not conducted as per the laid norms of the NationalCouncil for Teacher Education (NCTE). District superintendent of education in Ranchi, Jayant Misra said, “In order to meet such a crisis of teachers, the HRD in collaboration with the Jharkhand Academic Council will conduct TET.” According to him, exams will be conducted by the end of October. DSE even added that to cope with the situation teachers from urban areas are deployed in the rural areas and para teachers have also been appointed. However, the HRD department officials said TET exams would be held soon. The dates are yet to be announced. Singh denied quoting on the topic. He said, “I cannot say anything about it unless I see the report myself.”
  71. Parentsgivefakeincomecertificatesto claimRTEseats: SruthySusanUllas,TNN|Mar16, 2013, 03.05 AMIST BANGALORE: Helpless at the large number of fake income certificates schools are receiving from parents trying to claim the 25% quota under the Right to Education (RTE) Act, the schools’ association submitted a memorandum to the deputy commissioner to order a probe into their veracity. According to RTE, parents whose annual income is below Rs 3.5 lakh are eligible for free seats in private schools. Ever since the rule came into force, private schools have been bombarded by applications from allegedly poor parents.However, school managements found many of the income certificates to be fake. “Some parents came in swanky cars and applied for the RTEquota. Sometimes, the discrepancies are glaring in the income certificate. Like a parent whose income certificate said Rs 10,000 per month, but paying Rs 7,000 as house rent,” said a chairman of a prominent chain of schools. “This defeats the purpose of RTE. The needy still don’t get seats. Instead, the opportunities are grabbed by someone else. The deputy commissioner of Mysore has ordered verification of all income certificates issued by various tahsildars. We have requested a same procedure for Bangalore,” said LR Shivarame Gowda, president, Karnataka Federation of Independent School Managements ( KFISM). The association also submitted many case studies to the DC to prove its point. “We have requested a suitable officer to look into the problem or a Corps of Detective probe,” he added
  72. AwarenesssendsRTEadmissionapplicationssoaring PavanMV,TNN| Mar7, 2013, 04.25 AM IST MANGALORE: When RTE awareness is still low in Bangalore, Dakshina Kannada district has shown the way. There is a rise in applicants seeking admissions for first standard under Right to Education (RTE) quota in unaided schools in the district for the forthcoming academic year. The Department of Public Instruction has received 1,306 applications for admissions to 161 unaided schools for 2013-14 as against 829 applications in 2012-13. Of the 1,306 applications, the department has received the highest number of applications – 241 from Mangalore south and lowest number of applications – 95 from Belthangady. As many as 1,709 seats have been reserved in 161 unaided schools under RTE quota here for 2013-14. The RTE Act was introduced in 2012-13 to provide free education to underprivileged children in private schools and 1,682 seats were reserved under RTE quota. Sadananda Poonja, education officer, said: “Last year due to lack of awareness about RTE quota, 50% of the seats remained unfilled. The rise of applicants for admissions in 2013-14 is due to increasing awareness about RTE.” To create awareness about RTE, the department has been conducting street plays and workshops in different parts of the district for the past one year and has been distributing booklets pertaining to details of RTE. Sadananda said that till date the Department of Public Instruction had received the highest number of applications from unaided schools requesting for registration under RTE in the state. “163 schools from DK district have registered under RTE act,” he added. Applications received for admissions Bantwal: 383, Belthangady: 95, Mangalore North: 218, Mangalore South: 241, Moodbidri: 86, Puttur: 180, Sullia: 103 Bantwal: 354, Belthangady: 74, Mangalore North: 460, Mangalore South: 284, Moodbidri: 118, Puttur: 341, Sullia: 78
  73. DoorStepSchoollaunchesRTEenrollmentdrive: SwatiShinde,TNN|Mar17,2013, 03.44PMIST PUNE: City-based non-governmental organization, Door Step School (DSS) has initiated a campaign to enroll students from lower economic group in civic schools in order to make Right to Education (RTE) Act more meaningful. The campaign has been titled every child counts”. Citizens who come across children in the age group of 6-14, in their respective localities, streets, footpaths can report their deprivation to DSS. The NGO has also launched a website for suchfeedback in order to enable it to take practical steps aimed at getting the children registered for primary education. “There are various reasons for an eligible child being deprived of his right to education. Apart from social aspects, even non-availability of a birth certificate can impede the school admission process for the underprivileged segments,” said Rajani Paranjpay, founder-president of DSS. “Our focus is to target six-year-olds for mainstream school admission for primary education,” Paranjpay said, adding that the involvement of citizens in the project has been encouraging. The ‘every child counts’ campaign has issued an appeal to all Pune citizens to make use of the DSS website and make their own contribution to help children enroll in schools and make the RTE more relevant to the deprived population.
  74. Karnatakawantsfreeeducationupto18yearsofage: Indo-AsianNewsService|Updated:August02,201218:10IST Bangalore: Karnataka government was pushing the Centre to amend the RTE Act to extend the provision of free and compulsory education up to the age of 18 years, from the present 6-14 category, Primary and Secondary Education Minister Vishveshwara Hegde Kageri said today. Replying to a short duration discussion on implementation of RTE Act in the state, he said the Centre should share with the states, the financial burden of implementing the provisions. The expenditure on implementing the legislation would run into thousands of crores of rupee in the coming years, and the Centre should clearly spell out on its share, Kageri said. The Minister warned action against private managements refusing to implement the act, adding, the government would not accept “discrimination” (against students admitted under RTE Act). Leader of Opposition Siddaramaiah, V Sreenivas Prasad, H C Mahadevappa and N L Narendrababu (all Congress) lauded the act, and underlined the need to implement it strictly. Participating in the discussion, former Chief Minister B S Yeddyurappa said quality of education at primary level in government schools is below-par, making parents to send their children to private institutions. Expressing the view that the present generation of primary school students have tremendous IQ levels, he argued that teachers with mere TCH won’t be able to impart quality education to the children, adding, successful completion of degree course should be made mandatory for them. Yeddyurappa said the students are so bright and talented that he was not able to answer the questions posed to him by his grand-children. He said standards in government hospitals and schools needed to be improved to the level of private ones. “People don’t go to government hospitals because there is no guarantee that they will go back (return healthy)”.
  75. ASER study • However, our collective enthusiasm for the court’s decision would turn out to be misplaced if anyone bothers to do basic math. According to a study published online by Dr. Wilima Wadhwa of Annual Status of Education Report (ASER), enrolment in private schools in 2008 was 22.6 per cent. While this figure is likely to have increased since, over 70-75 per cent of our children still attend government schools. Even as private schools reserve 25 per cent of seats for economically backward children, the vast majority will still be schooled in government-run institutions. Moreover, most children in rural areas attend government schools. According to the District Information System for Education 2010-11, as many as 84 per cent of children in villages attend government schools. If the RTE Act has to be implemented in letter and in spirit, the government cannot ignore the quality of education it provides under its roof just because it has “won” the reservation battle with private institutions. Even as the government makes private schools “socially responsible,” it still has to bear the onus of educating the majority of children. Further, the assumption that private schooling is superior to a government education is based on the fact that children in the former tend to outperform the latter in examinations. But that is a superficial reading of facts. Once we scratch the surface, we find that other factors also contribute to children’s better outcomes in private schools, as indicated in a study conducted by Dr. Wadhwa. When parental education, tuition classes and economic disparities are controlled for, the difference in reading scores between government and private schools falls drastically from 20 per cent to five per cent. • In addition, we have to recognise that private schools differ vastly in terms of the quality of education they provide. This is why there are serpentine queues from the early hours of the morning for admissions into kindergarten in a few reputed schools. The scramble for seats is evidence of the dearth of quality education. Just herding children into private schools is not going to ensure their learning unless teachers are sensitised and trained to deal with children with different profiles. According to a study conducted by Wipro and Educational Initiatives, there are significant differences in the scores of children attending schools affiliated to the various national and State boards. Besides, children in the “top” private schools also exhibit rote learning and prejudiced thinking on sensitive socio-cultural issues.
  76. Three factors abroad: • Thus, we cannot overlook the fact that our educational system, both government and private, is in need of serious overhaul. In 2007, McKinsey and Company published a report that analysed why some school systems in the world ranked highly in international assessments of literacy, numeracy and problem-solving year after year. Top performing countries included Belgium, Finland, Japan, Hong Kong, Netherlands, Singapore and South Korea. While the countries sported vast differences, both culturally and politically, three factors regarding their education systems were common to all high performing nations. • First, a teaching job in these countries, unlike in India, is a high-status profession. In addition to receiving salaries comparable to other well-paying jobs, teacher training courses are highly selective and admit only the cream of graduates. • Second, teachers are provided intensive training and new recruits are mentored on the job. In our country, teachers tend to work in isolation and inexperienced teachers are expected to handle a class on their own without additional guidance. • Third, in the top-performing countries, schools try to offer the best possible education for every child by supporting those who lag behind. These schools monitor student performance closely and intervene when children fall behind by employing special educators who are trained in remedial instruction.
  77. A U.S. study A study in the United States revealed that the vocabulary of a three-year-old child of professional parents was 1,100 words whereas, a child whose parents were on welfare had a vocabulary of just 525 words. Under the RTE, poor children were admitted in 2011 into Shri Ram School, New Delhi. An article in the Wall Street Journal quoted the principal, Manika Sharma as saying: “The teachers have come into my office and broken down. They say, ‘Help us. There is no learning happening for the other affluent children. What we achieved in one week with kids before is taking three weeks.'” Writer John Gardner aptly says, “The schools are the golden avenue of opportunity for able youngsters but they are also the arena in which less able youngsters discover their limitations.”. Schools need resource personnel who can counsel and help these children realise their potential. In addition to supplementary remedial classes that help students bridge the academic divide, all children should be sensitised on getting along amicably. As private schools open their doors, educators have to ensure that children from poor homes do not feel threatened by their more able and affluent peers, both academically and socially Even as the child who comes to school in a chauffeur driven car, studies alongside the chauffeur’s child, the government cannot shy away from upgrading infrastructure, enhancing teacher quality and promoting educational attainment in public schools. As a society, we need to make a concerted effort to achieve educational excellence, both government and private. Private educators and the government have to work synergistically to loosen the shackles of our strictly stratified society.
  78. SUGGESTIONS • Right to education bill is a historic move and a major achievement by India government. But the Act will serve its purpose only if the hurdles that keep poor kids away from the school are removed. • Give incentives for schooling: In the poor families, kids are seen as helping hands, the more the better. They help in household chores and in the farm, besides earning money from labor jobs. Their contribution is quite significant for the survival of the family as a whole. Sending them to school takes this support away from the family. Hence, in order to educate them the following steps are absolute necessity: • Monetary support to parents for sending kids to school. For example, Rs 100 per month for each kid as long as they are enrolled in the school. • Mid-day meal schemes. This is another wonderful idea to send kids to school and provide them nourishment too. Parents certainly love this idea, as seen from the running of Anganwadis in the state of Chhattisgarh.
  79. • Establish ownership and responsibility Particularly in the rural and poor areas, people’s representatives – MPs, MLAs, Sarpanchs’ – should be made responsible for smooth functioning of the schools in their areas. • Local relevant NGOs and other organizations may also be involved. They can provide support through the School Management Committees. • Focus on teacher training programs • The quality of teachers is the backbone of any teaching program. Untrained or unmotivated teachers can mar any program, no matter how ambitious it is. Creating a standard training program to train and generate quality teachers is crucial for the RTE Act to produce meaningful results
  80. • “Lack of interest” is responsible for major school drop-outs. HRD ministry’s 46th Round of the National Sample Survey (NSS) statistics of 2005 show that the drop out rate by class VIII is 51% mainly due to lack of interest. This disinterest is due to lack of stimulating environment and poor infrastructure in government schools at elementary levels. Additional factors, such as adverse teacher/student ratios and the perceived irrelevance of schooling also add to the high drop out rates. • Use computer and satellite technology to create awareness and interest • Create mobile units that pay visits to different schooling centres, particularly in remote areas and show relevant films to both the teachers and the students. This will help sustain interest and arouse curiosity. Even visiting once in a fortnight or month would serve the purpose.
  81. CONCLUSION Thus, it can be concluded that, Education is a fundamental human right, without which capabilities for a decent life and effective participation in society are less likely to be developed. Since the RTE Act has provided us the tools to provide quality education to all our children, it is now imperative that we, the people of India, join hands to ensure the implementation of this law in its true spirit. The Government is committed to this task though real change will happen only through collective action and we must come forward willingly for the same. This Act has put India in the same league as U.S.A. and 130 other Nations as far as the right to education is concerned. Nothing can change overnight but there is a ray of hope. A hope that if all these hurdles and shortcomings are overcome and the loopholes removed, then this will become the road leading towards an Educated India, a Proud India. “SARVA SHIKSHA WILL BE USED TO PUSH RIGHT TO EDUCATION”
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  84. • Model Rules Under The Right Of Children To Free And Compulsory Education Act, 2009. Retrieved from http://www.scribd.com/doc/26778778/Right-Of- Children-to-Free-and-Compulsory-Education-Act-Model- Rules on 2nd March,2013. • Pandey,A. (2013) Sharp decline in education standard across country: study. NDTV. Retrieved from http://www.ndtv.com/article/india/sharp-decline-in- education-standard-across-country-study-319042 on 19th March,2013. • Ramamurthy.E (2011). PRIVATE SCHOOLS AND RTE ACT Imperiling public education. Retrieved from http://www.indiatogether.org/2011/jan/edu-rtepds.htm on 27th February,2013.
  85. • Right To Education Act. Delhi Educationists For Legal And Teaching Assistance (Regd.) Retrieved from: http://www.delta.org.in/form/rte.pdf on : 5th March,2013. • Right To Education (RTE) Act, 2009. Retrieved from: http://www.icbse.com/right-to-education-act on 2nd March,2013. • RTE Act 2009 — Anomalies and Challenges (2010). Retrieved from http://socialissuesindia.wordpress.com/2010/07/15/rte- act-2009-anomalies-and-challenges/ on 4th March,2013. • Salient Features of the Right to Education Act, 2009 (2010), retrieved from http://socialissuesindia.wordpress.com/2010/07/15/salient- features-of-the-right-to-education-act-2009/ on 4th March, 2013. • Sankaranarayanan,Aruna. (2012). Beyond the Right to Education lies a school of hard knocks. Article3321346. Retrieved from http://www.thehindu.com/opinion/op- ed/beyond-the-right-to-education-lies-a-school-of-hard- knocks/article3321346.ece on 8th March,2013.
  86. • Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act From Wikipedia, the free encyclopaedia. Retrieved from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Right_of_Children_to_Free _and_Compulsory_Education_Act on 8th March,2013. • Right to Education Act. Retrieved from http://www.indg.in/primary- education/policiesandschemes/right-to-education-bill on 16th March,2013. • SEETHALAKSHMI, S. (2006). Centre buries Right to Education Bill. Retrieved from http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2006-07- 14/india/27789149_1_education-bill-private-school- lobby-seats-for-poor-children on 8th March,2013.
  87. • Shinde,swati.(2013). Doorstep School Launches RTE Enrollment Drive, The Times Of India, Articles. Times of India.Retrieved from http://articles.timesofindia.indiatimes.com/2013-03- 17/pune/37786405_1_dss-rte-primary-education on 19th March,2013. • The Right Of Children To Free And Compulsory Education Act, 2009 (2010). Retrieved from http://socialissuesindia.wordpress.com/2010/06/18/right-to- education/ on 4th March, 2013. • The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act, 2009 notified(2009), Ministry of Human Resource Development. Retrieved from http://pib.nic.in/newsite/erelease.aspx?relid=52370 on 7th March,2013. • Right To Education Act. Delhi Educationists For Legal And Teaching Assistance (Regd.) Retrieved from: http://www.delta.org.in/form/rte.pdf on : 5th March,2013.
  88. • The Right Of Children To Free And Compulsory Education Act, 2009. Retrieved from http://socialissuesindia.files.wordpress.com/2010/07/right-to- education-act-2009.pdf on 20th February,2013. • Upadhyaya,Himanshu. (2012). CAG finds gaps in Arunachal education. Retrieved from http://www.indiatogether.org/2012/dec/edu-arunachal.htm on 27th February,2013. • What is the Right to Education Act? (2012). Retrieved from http://ibnlive.in.com/news/what-is-the-right-to-education- act/248002-3.html on 12th March,2013. • What will happen if RTE is implemented with 100% efficiency and 0% corruption? Volume 28 – Issue 14 :: INDIA’S NATIONAL MAGAZINE from the publishers of THE HINDU. Jul.02-15-2011. Retrieved from http://www.frontlineonnet.com/fl2814/stories/2011071528140 0600.htm on 11th March,2013.
  • The Act makes education a fundamental right of every child between the ages of 6 and 14 and specifies minimum norms in elementary schools. It requires all private schools to reserve 25% of seats to children from poor families It also prohibits all unrecognized schools from practice, and makes provisions for no donation or capitation fees and no interview of the child or parent for admission The RTE Act is the first legislation in the world that puts the responsibility of ensuring enrollment, attendance and completion on the Government.
  • It expands the definition of “child belonging to disadvantaged group” to include children with disability. “Child with disability” is defined as a child who is blind, leprosy cured, hearing impaired, locomotor disabled, and mentally ill. It also includes children suffering from autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities. A child suffering from autism, cerebral palsy, mental retardation and multiple disabilities has the same right to pursue free and compulsory elementary education which children with disability have under the Persons with Disabilities (Equal Opportunities, Protection of Rights and Full Participation) Act, 1995.
  • The right to education is free, compulsory and it includes good quality education for all. A curriculum not only provides good reading and understanding of text books but also includes learning through activities, exploration and discovery. Comprehension, competence, competitiveness and creativity should be developed, not forgetting compassion.
  • No child shall be held back, expelled, or required to pass a board examination until completion of elementary education. A child who completes elementary education shall be awarded a certificate.
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: Right to education
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Which case is right to education?

Reasons behind RTE Act 2009 – · 1950, Constitution of India provided under article 45, as one of the Directive Principles of state policy. · 1968, First National Commission established for education under the supervision of Dr. Kothari and submits its reports (several changes).

  1. · 1976, Constitutional Amendment for making education in a concurrent subject (responsibility of central and state)was passed.
  2. · 1986, The National Policy on Education (NPE) supports to common school system (css) and was formulated but not implemented.
  3. · 1993, The Supreme Court in the case of Mohini Jain and Unnikrishnan vs state of Andhra Pradesh ruled that the right to education is a fundamental right that flows from the Right to life in article 21 under Indian constitution.
  4. · 1997, Constitutional Amendment for making education as a fundamental right was introduced.
  5. · 2002, 86th Constitutional Amendment took place and insertion of Article 21A and brings changes in Article 45 and also added a new fundamental duty under Article 51A (k).
  6. · 2005, CABE committee report established to draft the right to education bill submits its report.

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What is the right to education essay?

Conclusion of Essay on Right to Education All in all, every citizen must get a chance to get access to education which will enable them to judge, weigh and make decisions for themselves. It is a life-changer for many people all over the world especially those belonging to the underprivileged sector to outshine.
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What is right of education class 8?

What is Right to Education Act (RTE Act)? The Right to Education Act 2009, also known as the RTE Act 2009, was enacted by the Parliament of India on 4 August 2009. It describes modalities of the importance of free and compulsory education for children aged between 6-14 years in India under Article 21 (A) of the Constitution of India.

This act came into effect on 1 April 2010 and made India one of the 135 countries to have made education a fundamental right for every child. It prescribes minimum norms for elementary schools, prohibits unrecognised schools from practice and advocates against donation fees and interviews of children at the time of admission.

The Right to Education Act keeps a check on all neighbourhoods through regular surveys and identifies children who are eligible for receiving an education but do not have the means to. Educational challenges have been prevalent at both the centre and states for many years in India.

The Right to Education Act 2009 maps out roles and responsibilities for the centre, state and all local bodies to rectify gaps in their education system in order to enhance the quality of education in the country.1. Compulsory and free education for all It is obligatory for the Government to provide free and compulsory elementary education to each and every child, in a neighbourhood school within 1 km, up to class 8 in India.

No child is liable to pay fees or any other charges that may prevent him or her from pursuing and completing elementary education. Free education also includes the provisions of textbooks, uniforms, stationery items and special educational material for children with disabilities in order to reduce the burden of school expenses.2.

3. Special provisions for special cases The Right to Education Act mandates that an out of school child should be admitted to an age-appropriate class and provided with special training to enable the child to come up to age-appropriate learning level.4. Quantity and quality of teachers

The Right to Education Act provides for rational deployment of teachers by ensuring that the specified Pupil-Teacher-Ratio is maintained in every school with no urban-rural imbalance whatsoever. It also mandates appointing appropriately trained teachers i.e.

  • Teachers with the requisite entry and academic qualifications.5.
  • Zero tolerance against discrimination and harassment The Right to Education Act 2009 prohibits all kinds of physical punishment and mental harassment, discrimination based on gender, caste, class and religion, screening procedures for admission of children capitation fee, private tuition centres, and functioning of unrecognised schools.

The Right to Education (RTE) Forum’s Stocktaking Report 2014 suggested that across the country, less than 10 per cent of schools comply with all of the Right to Education Act norms and standards. While the enactment of the Right to Education Act 2009 triggered significant improvements, concerns regarding the privatisation of education remain.

Educational inequalities have held a strong ground in India for many years. While the Right to Education Act offers the first step towards an inclusive education system in India, effective implementation of the same still remains to be a challenge.6. Ensuring all-round development of children The Right to Education Act 2009 provides for the development of a curriculum, which would ensure the all-around development of every child.

Build a child’s knowledge, human potential and talent.7. Improving learning outcomes to minimise detention The Right to Education Act mandates that no child can be held back or expelled from school till Class 8. To improve the performances of children in schools, the Right to Education Act introduced the Continuous Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE) system in 2009 to ensure grade-appropriate learning outcomes in schools.

Another reason why this system was initiated was to evaluate every aspect of the child during their time in school so that gaps could be identified and worked on well in time.8. Monitoring compliance of RTE norms School Management Committees (SMCs) play a crucial role in strengthening participatory democracy and governance in elementary education.

All schools covered under the Right to Education Act 2009 are obligated to constitute a School Management Committee comprising of a headteacher, local elected representative, parents, community members etc. The committees have been empowered to monitor the functioning of schools and to prepare a school development plan.9.

  • Right to Education Act is justiciable The Right to Education Act is justiciable and is backed by a Grievance Redressal (GR) mechanism that allows people to take action against non-compliance of provisions of the Right to Education Act 2009.
  • To ensure all schools follow this mandate, Oxfam India in collaboration with JOSH filed a complaint at the Central Information Commission (CIC) in 2011 evoking Section 4 of the Right to Information Act (RTI Act) 2005.

Section 4 of the RTI Act is a proactive disclosure section mandating all public authorities to share information with citizens about their functioning. Since schools are public authorities, compliance to Section 4 was demanded.10. Creating inclusive spaces for all The Right to Education Act 2009 mandates for all private schools to reserve 25 per cent of their seats for children belonging to socially disadvantaged and economically weaker sections.

This provision of the Act is aimed at boosting social inclusion to provide for a more just and equal nation. Why should we support Education for Girls? As per UNICEF data records the adjusted primary net enrolment rate for the year 2014-15 was 91 and 90 for girls. About 31 million girls across the globe do not have access to primary education.

Equality in the sexes in terms of their access to education and health has an intrinsic value in its own light. In India, the total enrolment in primary schools in India during the year 2014-15 was 1, 97,666 where only 95,556 of them were girls. Young girls in India are often forced to or voluntarily drop out of schools since they either have to look after their younger siblings or have to contribute to the household chores.

  • Centres opened by Oxfam India in different areas in priority and priority plus states help both schools going and non-school going kids to be at par with the school curriculum.
  • The non-school going kids are prepared so that they are able to appear for the admission tests in schools and get enrolled in an age-appropriate class.

A child who was unable to read or write is also taught in a manner that suits his interests leading to maximum learning. If a child fails or is unable to clear her tests or exams she becomes demotivated to continue her studies. Community organizations help these children to complete their schooling through registrations with NIOS.

These community-based organizations also offer various vocational courses like English speaking, stitching, BPO service calling for the girls to be able to be economically dependent. If educated, girls can contribute equally to economic development thus reducing gender imbalances in terms of education which enhances human capital formation.

An extensive study on the human capital theory suggests that education plays a major role in increasing the productivity of the economy by increasing the factor output per worker. Education and human resource development are at the centre of long-term economic developmental plans.

  • The lack of safety and security also leads to girls discontinuing school.
  • Morning school for girl students is followed by afternoon school for boys.
  • Senior students often complain that the boys tease and follow them home at the time when their school is over.
  • Due to they are earlier complaints police patrolling had increased when the girls came out of school however as soon as the number of policemen decreased the boys continued to harass them.

Many girls had dropped out of school because their parents believed that it was no longer safe to send their daughters to school. Despite continuous complaints to both the police as well as SMC members the problem still persists. The NCPCR has introduced new guidelines for the health, hygiene, safety, and security of students both in private and government schools.

  • The new guidelines point out that girls must be taught about menstrual hygiene and be supported so that they do not miss school.
  • They also state that schools should ensure zero tolerance on any matter related to sexual abuse of a child and stringent action shall be taken against the perpetrators of law.

An educated girl also understands the high importance of education for her future generations and is able to create a better lifestyle and provide better healthcare to her children. Apart from this, educating a girl child will directly reduce infant and maternal mortality rates, child marriages, domestic and sexual violence in families.
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